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Before a planning application is submitted, detailed investigations are undertaken to assess how the construction and operation of the wind farm might affect the local environment. These investigations are known collectively as the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).

The EIA takes into account the potential impacts on human beings, plants and animals; soil, water, air, climate and the landscape; material assets and the cultural heritage. The interaction between these factors is also examined and their significance is assessed. Where necessary, mitigation measures to eliminate or reduce potential impacts are identified.

A variety of surveys and assessments have now been carried out, including ornithology, hydrology, peat and cultural heritage.